Definition of Terms

Ablation
ABS Pipe
Adhesive Failure
Annulus or Annuli
ASTM
Backer Rod
Backing Material
Cable Tray
Char
Classification
Closed System
CMU – Concrete Masonry Unit
Cohesion
Cohesive Failure
Collar
Compatibility
Concentric
Control Joint
CPVC Pipe
Cure
Deflection (slip) Track Wall Assembly
Detail
DWV Pipe
Eccentric
Elasticity
Elastomer
Elastomeric
Elongation
EMT – Electrical Metal Tubing
Endothermic
Expansion Joint
F Rating
Fire Endurance
Fireproof, (adjective)
Fire Rated or Fire Resistance
Fire Resistance Classification
Firestop
Fire Test Standard
Intumesce
Joint/Gap
L Rating
Mineral Fiber
Modulus
SDS
Nominal Diameter
Non-Sag Sealant
Open System
PB Pipe
PE Pipe
PP Pipe
PVC Pipe
Sealant
Sealant Backing
Self-Leveling Sealant
Shelf Life
Shrinkage
Standard Temperature /Time Curve
Steel Sleeve
Structural Sealant
Substrate
System Number
Tensile Strength
Tooling
Tooling Time
Top of Wall
T Rating
Through Penetration
UL
Ultimate Elongation
WHI
Wire Mesh
Working (“pot”) Life

Ablation – A self regulation heat and mass transfer process in which incident thermal energy is expended by sacrificial loss of material. (ASTM)
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ABS Pipe – Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene pipe – a plastic pipe used for water distribution, drain, waste, vent and sewage.
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Adhesive Failure – Failure of the bond between the sealant, adhesive, or coating and substrate surface.
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Annulus or Annuli – The gap between the penetrating item and the outside edge of the hole.
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ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials; an independent consensus standards generating group composed of volunteers.
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Backer Rod – A cylindrical polyurethane or polyethylene foam material used to provide support and set the proper depth of material for gunned or troweled in place sealant.
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Backing Material – Combustible or noncombustible material used to provide support for gunned or troweled in place sealant.
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Cable Tray – An opened or closed steel ladder which may be used to support multiple cables in power plants and commercial buildings.
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Char, (noun) – A grayish black, crusty material formed by burning organic type sealants.
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Classification – A series of procedures, usually administered by an independent testing laboratory, by which the consumer is protected and assured that the product which was tested is the same as the product purchased.
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Closed System – A piping system which is sealed, typically carrying fluids under pressure, such as hot and cold water distribution. The exact definition on a closed pipe system is determined by the local authority having jurisdiction. For instance, electrical conduit in a vertical orientation through a roof installation may be considered a vented system and the same conduit in a horizontal orientation or penetrating through a floor may be considered closed.
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CMU – Concrete Masonry Unit, such as concrete block. Usually hollow.
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Cohesion – The molecular attraction that holds the body of a sealant or adhesive together. The internal strength of an adhesive or sealant.
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Cohesive Failure – Failure characterized by rupture within the sealant, adhesive, or coating.
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Collar – A galvanized sheet metal restricting device used in conjunction with plastic pipe. Its function is to direct and control the intumescent action of the firestopping material.
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Compatibility – The capability of two or more materials to be placed in contact or close proximity with one another and each material maintaining its usual physical or chemical properties, or both.
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Concentric – Having a common center; penetration material centered in the middle of a through-penetration opening.
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Control Joint – A formed, sawed, tooled, or assembled joint acting to regulate the location and degree of cracking and separation resulting from the dimensional change of different elements of a structure.
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CPVC Pipe – Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride pipe – a higher type grade of plastic pipe commonly used for hot/cold water distribution, sprinkler piping, and some chemicals. Suitable for high temperatures.
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Cure – In sealants, the process by which a compound attains its intended properties through evaporation, chemical reaction, heat, radiation, or combinations thereof.
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Deflection (slip) Track Wall Assembly – A specifically designed assembly at the top of non-load bearing gypsum walls. This assembly usually consists of “nested” stud and track members as a seismic feature which both architects and state officials (California) believe provides protection to interior non-load bearing walls.
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Detail – Technical drawing, complete with instructions on how to install a system.
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DWV Pipe – Non-pressure (vented) piping used for Drain, Waste or Vent.
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Eccentric – Off center; annulus will vary in through-penetration opening; penetration materials will not be in the center of the opening.
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Elasticity – The ability of a material to return to its original shape after removal of a load.
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Elastomer – A macromolecular material that returns rapidly to approximately the initial dimensions and shape after substantial deformation by a weak stress and release of the stress.
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Elastomeric – Having the characteristics of an elastomer.
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Elongation – Extension produced by a tensile stress.
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EMT – Electrical Metal Tubing; a thin wall galvanized steel pipe used to carry electrical or other types of conductors.
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Endothermic – A process or change that takes place with absorption of heat and requires high temperature for initiation and maintenance.
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Expansion Joint – A structural separation between building elements that allows independent movement without damage to the assembly.
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F Rating – A firestop shall be considered as meeting the requirements for an F rating when it remains in the opening during the fire test and hose stream test within the following limitations: The firestop shall have withstood the fire test for the rating period without permitting the passage of flame through openings, or the occurrence of flaming on any element of the unexposed side of the firestop. During the hose stream test, the firestop shall not develop any opening that would permit a projection of water from the stream beyond the unexposed side. (ASTM E 814)
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Fire Endurance – A measure of the elapsed time during which a material or assembly continues to exhibit fire resistance under specified conditions of test and performance. As applied to elements of buildings, it shall be measured by the methods and the criteria defined in ASTM E 119 Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, ASTM E 152 Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, or ASTM E 163 Fire Tests of Window Assemblies. (ASTM)
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Fireproof, (adjective) – An inappropriate and misleading term, not to be used. (ASTM)
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Fire Rated or Fire Resistance – A system which has been tested in accordance with the appropriate ASTM test standard and has met the mechanical and endurance requirements of that standard. The property of a material or assembly to withstand fire or give protection from it. As applied to elements of buildings, it is characterized by the ability to confine a fire or to continue to perform a given structural function, or both. Such testing is conducted by a nationally recognized laboratory which rates the system for 1, 2, 3 or 4 hours, based on the results of the fire test.
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Fire Resistance Classification – A standard rating of fire-resistance and protective characteristics of a building construction or assembly. (ASTM E 119)
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Firestop – A through-penetration firestop is a specific construction consisting of all materials that fill the opening around penetrating items such as cables, cable trays, conduits, ducts, and pipes and their means of support through the wall or floor to prevent spread of fire. (ASTM)
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Fire Test Standard -Fire test standards are procedures intended to measure and describe the response of materials, products, and systems to sources of heat or flame under controlled conditions. These tests are intended to provide information useful for such purposes as product development, quality control, and specification description. They are not intended to be used alone to provide a measure of the fire hazard of materials, products, or systems. One or more fire test standards, however, may be used as part of a fire hazard standard. Fire test standards are separate and distinct from fire hazard standards, which are used to describe, measure, assess, or control the behavior of materials, products, and systems in the relevant environment. (ASTM)
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Intumesce – To swell, enlarge, inflate or expand, as with heat; Biostop(R) series of firestopping sealants swell to close gaps or voids in through-penetration openings when exposed to high heat conditions.
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Joint/Gap – The space or opening between two or more adjoining surfaces.
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L Rating – Air leakage test rating. As defined in the UL “Fire Resistance Directory”:”The L rating criteria determines the amount of air leakage, in cubic feet per minute per square foot of opening (CFM/sq ft), through the firestop system at ambient and/or 400°F air temperatures at an air pressure differential of 0.30 in. W.C. The L ratings are intended to assist authorities having jurisdiction, and others, in determining the suitability of firestop systems for the protection on penetrations and miscellaneous openings in floors and smoke barriers for the purpose of restricting the movement of smoke in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code, NFPA 101.
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Mineral Fiber – A noncombustible insulation material made from mineral fibers. It is also known as mineral wool or safing material. It is typically used as a backing and filler material in through-penetrations.
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Modulus – The ratio of stress to strain. Also the tensile strength at a given elongation.
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SDS -Material Safety Data Sheet. A regulatory document describing the health and safety aspects of a material as it pertains to its properties, health effects, hazards, handling, and disposal.
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Nominal Diameter – Commonly referenced in pipe and tubing sizes; may refer to the inside diameter, the median diameter or the outside diameter of the through-penetration pipe.
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Non-Sag Sealant – A compound that exhibits little or no flow when applied in vertical or inverted joints.
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Open System – An open system or sometimes referred to as a vented system is a piping system which allows air flow to the exterior of the building to prevent back flow or vacuum, i.e.: DWV pipe system (Drain, Waste or Vent). The exact definition on a open piping system is determined by the local authority having jurisdiction. For instance, electrical conduit in a vertical orientation through a roof installation may be considered a vented system and the same conduit in a horizontal orientation or penetrating through a floor may be considered closed.
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PB Pipe – Polybutylene pipe; a plastic pipe that is typically used for cold and hot water distribution. It is a material that melts quickly when exposed to heat.
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PE Pipe – Polyethylene pipe; a plastic pipe that is typically used for gas distribution. It is a material that melts quickly when exposed to heat.
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PP Pipe – Polypropylene pipe; a plastic pipe that is suitable for higher temperature applications and is typically used for hot and cold water distribution and some chemical services. It is a material that melts quickly when exposed to heat.
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PVC Pipe – Polyvinyl chloride pipe – a common plastic pipe used for cold water distribution in both pressure (closed) or vented (DWV) applications. It is a material that melts quickly when exposed to heat.
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Sealant – A material that has the adhesive and cohesive properties to form a seal.
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Sealant Backing – A compressible material placed in a joint before applying a sealant.
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Self-Leveling Sealant – A compound that exhibits flow sufficient to seek gravitational leveling.
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Shelf Life – The maximum time packaged materials can be stored under specified conditions and still meet the performance requirements specified.
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Shrinkage – A decrease in length, area, or volume.
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Standard Temperature /Time Curve – A graphical representation derived from prescribed time-temperature relationships and used to control burn test furnace temperatures with progressing time. (ASTM)
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Steel Sleeve -A form used when pouring concrete to provide space for a penetrating item. Also may be used inside hollow construction walls to prevent firestopping materials from entering wall cavities unnecessarily.
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Structural Sealant – A sealant capable of transferring dynamic or static (“live” or “dead”, or both) loads, or both, across joint members exposed to service environments typical for the structure involved.
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Substrate – A material upon which films, treatments, adhesives, sealants, membranes, and coatings are applied.
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System Number – A number assigned to a specific detail or series of similar details which are then indexed in numerical order in a reference book or directory.
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Tensile Strength – Resistance of a material to a tensile force (stretch). The cohesive strength of a material expressed in psi.
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Tooling – The act of compacting and contouring a sealant in a joint.
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Tooling Time – The time interval after application of a one-component sealant or after mixing and application of multi-component sealant during which tooling is possible.
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Top of Wall – The joint/gap located above a non-load bearing wall and below the ceiling, deck, or floor.
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T Rating – A firestop shall be considered as meeting the requirements for a T rating when it remains in the opening during the fire test and hose stream test within the following limitations: The transmission of heat through the firestop during the rating period shall not have been such as to raise the temperature of any thermocouple on the unexposed surface of the firestop or on any penetrating item more than 325 ° F above its initial temperature. Also, the firestop shall have withstood the fire test for the rating period without permitting the passage of flame through openings, or the occurrence of flaming on any element of the unexposed side of the firestop. During the hose stream test, the firestop shall not develop any opening that would permit a projection of water from the stream beyond the unexposed side. (ASTM E 814)
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Through Penetration – Consists of three items: 1) wall or floor construction 2) penetrating item or absence thereof 3) the hole or void.
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UL – Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated; an independent testing laboratory.
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Ultimate Elongation – Elongation at failure.
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WHI – Warnock Hersey International, Incorporated; and independent testing laboratory.
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Wire Mesh – Galvanized steel hardware cloth used to support backing material in gypsum wallboard and hollow concrete block construction.
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Working (“pot”) Life – The time interval after opening a container of a single component sealant, or after mixing the components of a multi-component sealant, during which application and tooling is possible.
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